Effect of bone quality and osseointegration on stress distribution in the bone tissue surrounding dental implant. A finite element analysis
Accepted: 28 April 2023
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Aims. Dental implant surgeries are considered a stable cure-all to restore a missing tooth as a distinct prosthetic reconstructing method. FEA was employed to find the stress distribution in the area of the implant-bone and bone separately in different bone qualities and at four different bone-implant contact rates. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of bone quality and osseointegration rate on the bone region's stress distribution.
Materials and methods. In this study, using periapical radiography (PA) images, osseointegrated patterns in the bone-implant interface were diagnosed via image processing software. Four rates of 100, 70, 50, and 30 percent of bone-implant contact were modeled. Applying Lekholm’s classification of bone quality to the above-mentioned geometries, final models were achieved. Afterward, finite element analysis was implemented to investigate the stress distribution at the bone-implant interface during occlusal loading.
Results. The von Mises stress distribution represented the effect of osseointegration in all bone types of the implant-bone domain. Also, the comparison of incomplete osseointegration (i.e., 30%, 50%, and 70%) with the ideal case of a complete osseointegrated implant indicated the importance of higher osseointegration on the final stability. Lower bone qualities showed higher stress in the crest area of cortical bone, which leads to de-osseointegration.
Conclusions. The contribution of bone quality to the stability of the implant was greater than the osseointegration rate, but the rate of osseointegration can play an important role in the rate at which stress progresses to the apical region and creates corrosion around the implant-bone contact.
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